Original title: Global New Energy Cars Follow-up

Editor's Note: According to a reporter from the Economic Information Daily in a global follow-up visit to the new energy automotive industry, the traditional car manufacturing powers have used the same tricks when developing new energy vehicles - using various policies and substantial government subsidies. To promote the development of new energy vehicles, the problems encountered are almost the same: mileage anxiety, high costs, lack of infrastructure such as charging piles, these have become the main factor restricting the development of traditional car manufacturing power industry of new energy vehicles. For example, although the United States “super charging station” solves the problem of long charging time, the construction of a “super charging station” not only costs US$100,000, but also requires an infrastructure site with an area of ​​20 to 200 square meters. This has become a gulf for the popularization of new energy vehicles in the United States and the world.

After sorting out the new energy automobile industry in Germany and Japan, the Economic Information Daily again launched the second part of the global new energy vehicle follow-up report on the latest developments in the new energy automobile industry in the United States and Korea.


Electric cars are charging on the streets of the United States. Xinhua News Agency (photo by Zhao Hanrong)

U.S.: Electric Vehicles "Fight Back" Future Cars

Reporter Guo Shuang/Los Angeles Report

Under the government's high subsidies and a large number of policy incentives, the electric cars that were previously eliminated by the fuel vehicles staged a “revenge” in the US market.

According to data released by the U.S. government, total sales of the US auto market in 2017 exceeded 14 million, of which sales of new energy vehicles accounted for about 3%, and total sales reached 477,000, an increase of 5.6% over the previous year. In new energy vehicles, sales of pure electric vehicles rose by 23% to 168,000 units.

A report released by Bloomberg predicts that by 2040, sales of electric vehicles will reach 41 million, accounting for 35% of new light vehicle sales.

Electric vehicles staged "Revenge"

From the point of view of birth time, an electric car that was born about half a century earlier than an internal-combustion-engine car can definitely be regarded as an “older man” in the car circle. However, this “older generation” was only able to provide electricity from dry batteries, and the distance to run was only a short segment. This seems incredible today.

In the second half of the 19th century, the development of battery technology brought us the earliest glory in the electric vehicle industry in the United States. Electric vehicles have been widely used in Europe and the United States and were once more popular than fuel vehicles.

No bad gasoline smell, no noise, no engine vibration, no long warm-up time for steam cars, simpler driving operation, and relatively low price, these characteristics make electric cars popular in the early 20th century early car market. Together with the steam car and the diesel locomotive, a tripartite situation has emerged. In 1900, 38% of the 4200 vehicles sold in the United States were electric vehicles, 22% were internal combustion engine vehicles, and 40% were steam engine vehicles.

However, with the advancement of oil extraction and internal combustion engine technology in Texas, electric vehicles gradually lost their advantages. The internal combustion engine drive vehicle "occupied" the automobile market in one fell swoop, and electric vehicles began to disappear. In the 1930s and 1940s, electric vehicles were basically eliminated by fuel vehicles.

In the following decades, with the depletion of oil-based fossil fuels and the continuous occurrence of air pollution incidents, electric vehicles have staged a “revenge” in the US market, and more and more Americans have begun to pay attention to electric vehicles.

As an important market indicator, sales figures not only reflect the attitude of ordinary consumers to new energy vehicles, but also intuitively show consumers' preference for certain types of models.

According to the definition of China's industries, hybrid vehicles do not belong to new energy vehicles, but interestingly, hybrid vehicles are the highest-selling category in the US new energy market, accounting for about 67% of total sales. Compared to the purely electric vehicles that are likely to cause anxiety about cruising range, and the relatively higher price of plug-in hybrids, hybrid models are more cost-effective.

Hybrids have been cultivated in the United States for many years, and Toyota, Ford and other Japanese American cars have the most competitive market advantages. Among them, the Toyota market accounted for a maximum of 55.42%; Ford ranked second, accounting for 19.24%.

Plug-in hybrid models are also popular in the US market. The Chevrolet Volenda, which Japan's Prius Prime is fighting against at home, is competitive in this field.

In the pure electric vehicle market, it is occupied by Tesla's main models Model S, Model X, Bolt EV and LEAF. Statistics show that the sales of these four models account for more than 80% of the total sales of the pure electric vehicle market. Among them, the high-end driving range of the electric SUV has always been a hotly contested place. This is also the reason why the Model X keeps selling after experiencing the door storm and seat problems.

The Model 3 electric vehicle that entered the US market last year, with a start price of $35,000 each, is called Tesla's most affordable model. Tesla has high hopes for this model, hoping to use it to reduce losses for Tesla and invest in future cars.

However, what the industry is most concerned about is whether the Model 3 can quickly increase its volume. Previously, this car has repeatedly postponed production targets due to insufficient capacity. Recently, Tesla announced that its production has reached 2,000 vehicles in the week. It is reported that Tesla's production target for the second quarter is 5,000 Model 3 electric vehicles per week, which was originally set by the company for the end of 2017.

"Counter attack" depends on technology but the bottleneck is still

The reason why electric vehicles can be "backlashed" in the U.S. market is the decline in battery costs and the development of charging technology is also an important factor.

First, the decline in battery costs is a prerequisite. Last year, the cost of lithium-ion batteries was $350 per kilowatt-hour, and since 2010, the cost of lithium-ion batteries has dropped by 65%. The IEA report pointed out that since 2008, the cost of batteries has fallen by about four times, and the energy density of batteries has increased five-fold. Bloomberg analysts predict that by 2030, the cost of batteries for electric vehicles will be much lower than $120 per kilowatt-hour. As the technology is further improved, the cost of the battery will further decline.

For electric vehicles, charging is an essential part of the process. As of January 2018, the United States has built a total of nearly 20,000 charging piles and more than 50,000 charging sockets.

The star effect is another reason for the development of new energy models in the United States. When the price of oil cannot be a factor that touches ordinary people to buy new energy models, the selection of public figures has made it possible to buy and use new energy models with a star effect, making it a trend.

In addition, the promotion of star companies such as Tesla has also played a key role. Tesla’s market strategy is undoubtedly correct. In 2008, Roster, the sports car that launched the test, was launched. In 2012, the mature Model S, a high-end car, was introduced. In 2015, Model X was launched, and in March 2016, the Model 3 was launched. , That is, first use high-end cars to exercise their own ability, occupy the market potential, but not too much to disturb the competitors, wait until the technical capabilities are mature, quickly launched the Volkswagen models to seize the market.

Of course, not only Tesla, after the 1990s, major auto manufacturers began to invest funds and technologies in the field of electric vehicles, which became an important factor in promoting the development of electric vehicles.

However, despite some progress, the US electric vehicle market still faces problems such as high cost of charging piles and long charging time. Because long-term losses are difficult to spread, charging service fees are only a drop in the bucket for operators, so losses have become the “normal” of the entire charging pile industry.

To this end, Tesla's solution is to build as many fast charging stations as possible - "Supercharging". The “Super Charging Station” is fast and convenient, and it can travel 270 kilometers in half an hour, which is 10 times the efficiency of a home charging station.

Although this service is commendable, high costs have made most Americans "defeating." It is understood that the construction cost of each "super charging station" is not only more than 100,000 US dollars, but also requires an area of ​​20 to 200 square meters of infrastructure.

Under such circumstances, the development of wireless charging technology has become an important factor in the popularity of electric vehicles. With the increase in the research and development of electric vehicle wireless charging technology and the fierce competition in the third-party charging pile market, the technology has also been successfully applied.

In recent years, automobile manufacturers all over the world have realized the trend of intelligence and new energy in the automotive industry, and increased their investment in autopilot and new energy vehicles. For example, Ford announced plans to invest 11 billion U.S. dollars in the development of electric vehicles and hybrid cars during the North American Auto Show this year; BMW announced that it will launch a total of 25 electric vehicles by 2025; Mercedes-Benz plans to implement all cars by 2022. Has an electric version.

In addition, Japanese manufacturers are also rapidly improving fuel economy by adopting hybrid technologies and improving the fuel economy of internal combustion engines.

Regional development with more policy support

For many years, the U.S. government has always maintained a positive attitude toward new energy vehicles. As early as the 1980s, the U.S. government launched a targeted new energy strategy.

In 1988, President Reagan signed the Alternate Engine Fuel Act (AMFA) in the last year of his tenure, passing tax reductions for car companies that use natural gas or alcohol (the two fuels are called alternative fuels). , To achieve the purpose of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions.

In 1989, President George W. Bush submitted an amendment to the Clean Air Act to Congress to resolve the three major air problems that endanger the health of the American people: acid rain, urban air pollution, and toxic gas emissions. In the end, the proposal was passed in 1990, and car dealers selling clean fuel models can enjoy certain tax deductions.

In 1992, the United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act. For the first time, the decree gives an official definition of the concept of “replacement fuel” applied by the industry for several years: Alternative fuels include biofuels (such as ethanol), natural gas, hydrogen, electricity, propane, and other fuels that can pass the regulations of the Department of Energy in the future (afterwards The two types of fuels are biodiesel and P-type fuel. These models are called alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs).

Until today, AFV is still the official definition and key support vehicle for the implementation of energy-saving and environmentally friendly vehicles in the United States. In the decree, AFV has become the main target of government car purchase. A hard indicator is that from the beginning of fiscal 1999, 75% of the light trucks in federal vehicles must be AFV.

It is precisely under the impetus of government subsidy policies that new energy vehicles in the United States have experienced relatively rapid growth in recent years.

In order to promote the plug-in hybrid vehicle plan, the U.S. government has spent 10 billion U.S. dollars in the form of low-interest loans and subsidies, and even set up a special fund to support the research, development, production, and charging of power batteries, key components, and new energy vehicles. Facilities construction.

As a strong supplement to existing tax credits, the U.S. government also issued a plan for the development of the electric vehicle industry, including the provision of a US$4.5 billion government loan guarantee, in the name of the White House in July 2016. Million US dollars to promote the "battery 500" project.

The Obama administration also introduced regulations in 2012 that require American vehicles to achieve an average mileage of 54.5 miles per gallon of gas (corresponding to 4.32 liters of fuel per 100 kilometers) by 2025, which is 10 miles higher than current standards. The Obama administration stated that this will help to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, save consumer spending, and ultimately reduce U.S. crude oil consumption.

The leverage of policy regulation is obvious. For example, under the stimulation of favorable policies, the sales of electric vehicles in the second-largest electric vehicle market in Georgia are almost equal to California, the largest electric vehicle market.

From the perspective of regional development pattern, the regions with more policy support have become the fastest growing regions for the new energy automobile market in the United States.

Judging from the availability of electric vehicles in the United States, California accounted for more than half of the total, which is due to the strong support of local governments. Matt Palace, deputy chief executive officer of the Science and Technology Development Department of the Southern California Air Quality Administration, once said in an interview with reporters that the California government’s vigorous promotion has formed a powerful stimulus to the development of the industry. This is the development of new energy vehicles in the United States. important reason.

As the largest electric vehicle market in the United States, California has been promoting "new energy vehicles" "mandatory."

Since the 1970s, in order to control air pollution, California has the power to formulate more stringent vehicle fuel consumption standards, and thus it has become the most severe state of automobile environmental protection standards in the United States, and it is also the fastest growing state of new energy vehicles.

In 1990, California launched a zero-emission vehicle program that required automakers to develop pure electric vehicles, while demanding sales of new energy vehicles to reach 15% of the overall new car sales.

In 2007, California subsidized pure electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and electric motorcycles through clean vehicle subsidy programs. Depending on the model level, they have different levels of subsidy. Each time the state government prescribes the total amount of subsidies, it is generally issued on a first-come, first-served basis to the car buyers until the total amount of subsidies runs out.

Alberto Ayala, executive vice president of the California Air Resources Committee, said: "If car manufacturers want to sell cars in California, then by 2025, one of the seven cars you sell must have a zero-emission vehicle. Non-compliance will inevitably be punished."

Today, the enthusiasm of Americans for electric cars has re-emerged and electric vehicles are increasingly occupying the market.

South Korea: Using the "World's Highest Level" Subsidy to Promote Electric Vehicles

Reporter Sun Yiran/Reported by Seoul

In recent years, the Korean government has actively promoted the development of the electric vehicle industry through technology research and development and government subsidies. However, the insufficiency of charging station facilities and unstable and unbalanced subsidy policies are still two major obstacles to the development of the Korean electric vehicle industry.

Highly valued technology development

In February 2018, South Korean officials said at the "Future Automobile Industry Symposium" that the South Korean government will accelerate the development of technologies for electric vehicles and self-driving cars.

The Ministry of Industry, Trade and Resources of South Korea stated in its “Future Automobile Industry Development Strategy” that it will significantly improve the distance traveled and charging technology of electric vehicles. The goal is that after charging once, electric vehicles can be driven from Seoul to Busan, that is, the mileage is 500 Above the km, the charging rate is more than double the current rate.

The Korea Ministry of Industry and Resources also stated that the government plans to convert buses, taxis, and small trucks into electric vehicles. The specific plan is to select 5 local self-government groups in 2018, and from 2019 onwards, replace 10% of the vehicles each year until 2030 and convert all the above types of vehicles into electric vehicles.

In addition, the South Korean government decided to start promoting the recycling of waste batteries for electric vehicles and the basic service of electric vehicles such as the electric vehicle storage energy linkage electric network from 2018.

Relevant data show that in the past two years, South Korea's electric vehicle sales have increased significantly. In 2015, South Korea sold 2,907 electric vehicles, and in 2016 it increased to 5,914. According to a work report issued by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea in January 2017, South Korea’s target for 2017 is that the number of electric vehicles will reach 14,000.

Implementing "the world's highest standard of electric vehicle subsidies"

South Korean media said that South Korea has "the world's highest standard electric vehicle subsidies."

According to a work report released by the Ministry of Environment of Korea, the amount of subsidies for each electric car in 2017 is similar to that of 2016, which is 14 million won. The range of subsidies for electric vehicles is also expanding. In 2017, 101 local self-government groups in South Korea subsidized electric vehicles, an increase of 70 compared to 2016.

It is understood that in order to promote the popularity of electric vehicles, the Korean Ministry of Environment grants tax-free concessions to consumers who purchase electric cars. In addition to the subsidies of up to 4.6 million won, purchasers can also exempt individual consumption tax of up to 2 million won and 600,000. The won’s education tax and the income tax of 1.4 million won, and this policy will be maintained until 2018.

At present, the Korean government is constantly adjusting the amount of subsidy for electric vehicles based on market conditions. Starting from 2018, when consumers purchase electric vehicles, they can receive subsidies of 10.17 million won to 12 million won from the government based on the battery capacity of the purchased vehicles, the maximum mileage, and the effect on the environment. Compared with the fixed subsidies of 14 million won per car in 2016, this amount has slightly decreased.

The South Korean government has also increased the support for the use of electric vehicles in taxis, trucks, buses and other types of vehicles. According to relevant policies and regulations, an electric taxi can receive up to 12 million won in subsidies; a one-ton electric truck can receive a subsidy of 20 million won and plans to implement measures to encourage the replacement of diesel trucks with electric trucks in the second half of this year; Subsidies have also been expanded from small buses to large and medium-sized buses, of which medium-sized buses receive 60 million won and large buses receive 100 million won.

At the same time, local governments are also increasing subsidies for new energy vehicles.

The data shows that in 2017, the number of electric vehicles in Daejeon increased to 172, which is a significant increase compared to 2016. On the subsidy side, the subsidy for each vehicle was 17 million won in 2016, which subsidizes 42 vehicles in total. This compares with an increase in the amount and amount of subsidies in 2017.

Since 2017, Geoje has also been promoting the popularization of electric vehicles to the public. It subsidizes the Kia Ray EV, Renault Samsung SM3 ZE, Hyundai IONIQ, and Kia Soul EV. The subsidy for each vehicle is 17 million. won.

The “Announcement of the Mobilization of Electric Vehicles in 2017 (Revised)” published by Busan City indicates that subsidies for electric vehicles in Busan have reached 19 million won, and subsidies for electric vehicle charging stations have reached 4 million won.

In Jeju City, where EVs are the most popular and related infrastructure, the government provided subsidies for Renault Samsung SM3 ZE, Kia RAY EV, Kia Sauer EV, BMW i3, and Nissan LEAF, with a subsidy of 2,000 for each vehicle. Million won. According to incomplete statistics, 7361 electric vehicles in Jeju City have enjoyed government subsidies. In addition, Jeju City has decided to purchase additional 152 official electric vehicles.

The infrastructure is still insufficient

In addition to uneven government subsidies, the insufficiency of infrastructure such as charging stations is still a stumbling block to the popularization of Korean electric vehicles. In recent years, the number of charging stations in South Korea has increased significantly. However, compared with the number of 25,000 registered electric vehicles, the current number of charging stations is still far from enough.

At the same time, the distribution of charging stations varies from region to region. The data shows that the current distribution of electric vehicle charging stations in Korea is dominated by the metropolitan area and Jeju. There are 574 charging stations and 1013 chargers in Gyeonggi Province. Followed by Seoul (524, 1003), Gyeongsangdo (397, 615), Jeju (367, 595) and Chungcheong (286, 405). By contrast, there are only 29 charging stations and 42 chargers in Ulsan.

South Korean media analysis believes that unstable and uneven subsidy policies are one of the reasons for this. The government sometimes reduces the budget for universal electric vehicles on the grounds of insufficient budget. At the same time, Ningyue, Huachuan, Baocheng, Xianping, Jindao and other places did not subsidize electric vehicles compared to some 23 million won of local governments.

The Korean government has also recognized the problem of insufficient charging stations and has begun to pay attention to the construction of corresponding infrastructure. According to the data released by the Ministry of Environment of Korea, the number of domestic charging equipment in Korea was 750 in 2016, increasing to 1801 in 2017 and planning to increase to 3941 in 2018. However, compared with the number of 12,000 gas stations in South Korea, the number of charging stations is far from enough.

To this end, the Korea Ministry of Industry, Trade and Resources said that the government and relevant agencies plan to focus on the major crowded areas such as large-scale supermarkets and set up 1,500 fast charging stations each year. By 2020, the number of fast charging stations nationwide will approach that of gas stations. quantity.

In addition, the Ministry of the Environment plans to provide vehicle purchasers with subsidies for the purchase of personal chargers. Among them, the slow charger can subsidize up to 3 million won, and the mobile charger can subsidize up to 600,000 won.

Several local governments also introduced corresponding measures. For example, based on the construction of three public-speed charging stations in 2017, Daejeon City plans to build an additional 15 high-speed charging stations in 2018, and Busan City also proposed in its “2017 Electric Vehicle Popularization Work Announcement”. A maximum of 4 million won will be given to each electric vehicle charging station.

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